About this item:

226 Views | 182 Downloads

Author Notes:

Shaloo Gupta, Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, 1 Independence Way, Suite 220, Princeton, NJ 08540, U.S.A. E‐mail: E-mail address:shaloo.gupta@kantarhealth.com

The authors acknowledge the writing and editorial assistance of Martine Maculaitis, PhD, on behalf of Kantar Health, with funding from Eisai.

Shaloo Gupta is an employee of Kantar Health, which received funding from Eisai to conduct and report on this study.

Wan Tsong is an employee of Eisai, which funded this study. Philippe Ryvlin, Patrick Kwan, and Edward Faught were not paid for their participation in this particular publication and study but are paid consultants to Eisai for other projects.

We confirm that we have read the Journal's position on issues involved in ethical publication and affirm that this report is consistent with those guidelines.



  • Costs
  • Health utilities
  • Productivity
  • Quality of life
  • Resource utilization

Understanding the burden of focal epilepsy as a function of seizure frequency in the United States, Europe, and Brazil


Journal Title:

Epilepsia Open


Volume 2, Number 2


, Pages 199-213

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Objective: To understand the current burden of focal epilepsy (FE) as a function of seizure frequency. Methods: Patients were identified from the United States (2011, 2012, and 2013), five European countries (EU; France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom) (2011 and 2013), and Brazil (2011 and 2012) National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS), a nationally representative, Internet-based survey of adults (18+ years). The NHWS collected data on respondents' quality of life (QoL), health utilities, productivity loss, and healthcare resource utilization. Indirect and direct costs were calculated from the literature. Altogether, 345 of 176,093 (U.S.A.), 73 of 30,000 (United Kingdom), 53 of 30,001 (Germany), 53 of 30,000 (France), 41 of 12,011 (Spain), 37 of 17,500 (Italy), and 71 of 24,000 (Brazil) respondents self-reported a diagnosis of FE. Results: Many respondents (U.S.A.: 56.2%; 5EU: 41.6%; Brazil + 5EU: 40.5%) reported persistent seizures (≥1 per year). Over 60% to just over 71% of respondents with FE were treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In the United States, seizure frequency was associated with hospitalizations, indirect costs (ages 18-60), and total direct costs. For the 5EU and Brazil + 5EU, seizure frequency was associated with physical QoL, health utilities, activity impairment, and emergency room (ER) visits. Additional associations were observed for the 5EU on hospitalizations, indirect costs (ages 18-60), ER visit costs, and total direct costs and for Brazil + 5EU on absenteeism, overall work impairment, and provider visits. Costing was not performed for Brazil + 5EU. Significance: Around half of the patients had persistent seizures despite most taking an AED in this 2011-2013 dataset. The results support the hypothesis that reducing seizures can improve productivity and reduce resource utilization and associated costs. Regional differences may reflect differences in healthcare systems and selected patient populations. Overall, the results suggest that additional treatment options are needed to improve seizure control and reduce related costs.

Copyright information:

© 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia Open published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Creative Commons License

Export to EndNote