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Author Notes:

Address correspondence to: Susan Furth, MD, PhD. 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Phone: 215-590-2449. furths@email.chop.edu

Data in this manuscript were collected by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children prospective cohort study (CKiD) with clinical coordinating centers (Principal Investigators) at Children’s Mercy Hospital and the University of Missouri – Kansas City (Bradley Warady, MD) and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (Susan Furth, MD, Ph.D.), Central Biochemistry Laboratory (George Schwartz, MD) at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and data coordinating center at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (Alvaro Muñoz, Ph.D.).

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

The authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


Research Funding:

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, with additional funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (grants U01-DK-66143, U01-DK-66174, U01DK-082194, and U01-DK-66116).

The CKiD Study is funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, with additional funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U01-DK-66143, U01-DK-66174, U01-DK-82194, U01-DK-66116). The CKiD website is located at http://www.statepi.jhsph.edu/ckid.

Support for the nutritional analysis of the FFQ was provided by the National Center for Research Resources, Grant UL1RR024134, and is now at the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Grant UL1TR000003.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Urology & Nephrology
  • Dietary assessment
  • Nutrient intake
  • Children
  • Chronic kidney disease

Assessment of Dietary Intake of Children with Chronic Kidney Disease


Journal Title:

Pediatric Nephrology


Volume 32, Number 3


, Pages 485-494

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Our aim was to characterize the nutrient intake of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) relative to recommended intake levels. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in The North American Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study. Nutrient intake was analyzed to estimate the daily consumption levels of various nutrients and compared with national guidelines for intake. Results: There were 658 FFQs available for analysis; 69.9 % of respondents were boys, with a median age [Interquartile range (IQR)] of 11 years (8–15). Median daily sodium, potassium, and phosphorus intake was 3089 mg (2294–4243), 2384 mg (1804–3076), and 1206 mg (894–1612) respectively. Sodium and phosphorus consumptions were higher than recommended in all age groups. Caloric intake decreased with dropping glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (p = 0.003). The median daily caloric intakes were 1307 kcal in male children 2–3 years old, 1875 kcal in children 4–8 years old, 1923 kcal in those 9–13 years old, and 2427 kcal in those 14–18 years old. Respective levels for girls were 1467 kcal, 1736 kcal, 1803 kcal, and 2281 kcal. Median protein intake exceeded recommended levels in all age groups, particularly among younger participants. Younger children were more likely than older children to exceed the recommended intakes for phosphorus (p < 0.001) and the age-specific recommended caloric intake (p < 0.001). Macronutrient distribution (carbohydrate:fat:protein) was consistent with recommendation. Conclusions: Children in the CKiD cohort consumed more sodium, phosphorus, protein, and calories than recommended. The gap between actual consumption and recommendations indicates a need for improved nutritional counseling and monitoring.

Copyright information:

© 2016, IPNA.

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