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Author Notes:

Correspondence to:Fr€anzel J. B. van Duijnhoven, Division of Human Nutrition, PO Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Tel.: 131-0-317-485375, Fax: 131-0-317-483342, E-mail: franzel.vanduijnhoven@wur.nl

The authors thank H. van Daal and T. Beijers for the 25(OH)D analysis.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no potential conflicts of interest.


Research Funding:

This work was financially supported by World Cancer Research Fund International and Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds (WKOF) with grant 2010/252 and by the Dutch Cancer Society with grant UW 2010–4872.

The coordination of EPIC is financially supported by the European Commission (DG‐SANCO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

The national cohorts are supported by Danish Cancer Society (Denmark); Ligue Contre le Cancer, Institut Gustave Roussy, Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) (France); German Cancer Aid, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Deutsche Krebshilfe, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum and Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany); the Hellenic Health Foundation (Greece); Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro‐AIRC‐Italy and National Research Council (Italy); Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), Netherlands Cancer Registry (NKR), LK Research Funds, Dutch Prevention Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), Statistics Netherlands (The Netherlands); ERC‐2009‐AdG 232997 and Nordforsk, Nordic Centre of Excellence programme on Food, Nutrition and Health (Norway); Health Research Fund (FIS), PI13/00061 (to Granada), PI13/01162 (to EPIC‐Murcia), Regional Government of Asturias, Basque Country, Murcia and Navarra, ISCIII RETIC (RD06/0020) (Spain); Swedish Cancer Society, Swedish Research Council and County Councils of Skåne and Västerbotten (Sweden); Cancer Research UK (14136 [to EPIC‐Norfolk]; C570/A16491 and C8221/A19170 [to EPIC‐Oxford]), Medical Research Council (UK) (1000143 [to EPIC‐Norfolk], MR/M012190/1 [to EPIC‐Oxford]).

The Nord‐Trøndelag Health Study (The HUNT Study) is a collaboration between HUNT Research Centre (Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU), Nord‐Trøndelag County Council, Central Norway Health Authority, and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Oncology
  • vitamin D
  • pancreatic cancer
  • nested case-control study
  • cancer epidemiology
  • VIVO

Circulating concentrations of vitamin D in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in European populations

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Journal Title:

International Journal of Cancer


Volume 142, Number 6


, Pages 1189-1201

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Evidence from in vivo, in vitro and ecological studies are suggestive of a protective effect of vitamin D against pancreatic cancer (PC). However, this has not been confirmed by analytical epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentrations and PC incidence in European populations. We conducted a pooled nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study's second survey (HUNT2) cohorts. In total, 738 primary incident PC cases (EPIC n = 626; HUNT2 n = 112; median follow-up = 6.9 years) were matched to 738 controls. Vitamin D [25(OH)D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 combined] concentrations were determined using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models with adjustments for body mass index and smoking habits were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Compared with a reference category of > 50 to 75 nmol/L vitamin D, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 0.71 (0.42–1.20); 0.94 (0.72–1.22); 1.12 (0.82–1.53) and 1.26 (0.79–2.01) for clinically pre-defined categories of ≤25; > 25 to 50; > 75 to 100; and > 100 nmol/L vitamin D, respectively (p for trend = 0.09). Corresponding analyses by quintiles of season-standardized vitamin D concentrations also did not reveal associations with PC risk (p for trend = 0.23). Although these findings among participants from the largest combination of European cohort studies to date show increasing effect estimates of PC risk with increasing pre-diagnostic concentrations of vitamin D, they are not statistically significant.

Copyright information:

© 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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