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Author Notes:

Corresponding Author: Michael J. Kahana, Email: kahana@sas.upenn.edu.

This work was supported by the DARPA Restoring Active Memory (RAM) program (Cooperative Agreement N66001-14-2-4032).

Y.E. analyzed the data.

P.A.W., D.F.L., A.K, A.A., A.B., C.S.I., M.A.G., and M.T.K. performed data collection, recording, and annotation of behavioral responses.

I.P. programmed the closed-loop system.

M.R.S., A.D.S., B.C.L., R.E.G., B.C.J., K.A.D., and G.A.W. recruited participants and provided general assistance.

J.M.S., R.G., and S.R.D. localized the electrodes.

Y.E., D.S.R., and M.J.K. designed experiments. Y.E. and M.J.K. wrote the manuscript.

All authors provided feedback on the manuscript. D.S.R. and M.J.K. supervised the research.

We dedicate this paper in loving memory of Anastasia Lyalenko, without whose contributions this work would not have been possible (http://memory.psych.upenn.edu/Anastasia_Lyalenko_Memorial_Fund).

We thank Blackrock Microsystems for providing neural recording and stimulation equipment.

We are indebted to the patients and their families for their participation and support.

The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this material are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

B.C.J. receives research funding from NeuroPace and Medtronic not relating to this research.

M.J.K. and D.S.R. are in the process of organizing Nia Therapeutics, LLC (“Nia”), a company intended to develop and commercialize brain stimulation therapies for memory restoration.

Currently, Nia has no assets and has not commenced operations.

M.J.K. and D.S.R. each holds a greater than 5% equity interest in Nia.

All other authors declare no competing financial interests.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by the DARPA Restoring Active Memory (RAM) program (Cooperative Agreement N66001-14-2-4032).


  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Science & Technology - Other Topics

Closed-loop stimulation of temporal cortex rescues functional networks and improves memory

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Journal Title:

Nature Communications


Volume 9, Number 1


, Pages 365-365

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Memory failures are frustrating and often the result of ineffective encoding. One approach to improving memory outcomes is through direct modulation of brain activity with electrical stimulation. Previous efforts, however, have reported inconsistent effects when using open-loop stimulation and often target the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes. Here we use a closed-loop system to monitor and decode neural activity from direct brain recordings in humans. We apply targeted stimulation to lateral temporal cortex and report that this stimulation rescues periods of poor memory encoding. This system also improves later recall, revealing that the lateral temporal cortex is a reliable target for memory enhancement. Taken together, our results suggest that such systems may provide a therapeutic approach for treating memory dysfunction.

Copyright information:

© 2018 The Author(s).

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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