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Author Notes:

Correspondence should be addressed to B.P. (bpulend@emory.edu).

See publication for full list of author contributions.

We thank Beverly Weaver and the Hope clinic Staff for their assistance with the clinical study.

Access to Online data portal (Firefox and Safari are recommended for best results): http://www.immuneprofiling.org/papers/meni/.

The accession numbers for microarray data at Gene Expression Omnibus are MPSV4 and MCV4: GSE52245, YF-17D: GSE13485, Flu TIV: GSE29617, Flu LAIV: GSE29615.

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The authors declare no competing financial interests.


Research Funding:

This study was supported by funding from the US National Institutes of Health (U19AI090023, U54AI057157, R37AI48638, R37DK057665, U19AI057266, AI100663-02) to B.P. laboratory; by the Georgia research Alliance GRA and Emory University Research Committee and from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Program, NIH/NCRR to Nadine Rouphael.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Immunology
  • KINASE 1

Molecular signatures of antibody responses derived from a systems biology study of five human vaccines

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Journal Title:

Nature Immunology


Volume 15, Number 2


, Pages 195-204

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Many vaccines induce protective immunity via antibodies. Systems biology approaches have been used to determine signatures that can be used to predict vaccine-induced immunity in humans, but whether there is a 'universal signature' that can be used to predict antibody responses to any vaccine is unknown. Here we did systems analyses of immune responses to the polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines against meningococcus in healthy adults, in the broader context of published studies of vaccines against yellow fever virus and influenza virus. To achieve this, we did a large-scale network integration of publicly available human blood transcriptomes and systems-scale databases in specific biological contexts and deduced a set of transcription modules in blood. Those modules revealed distinct transcriptional signatures of antibody responses to different classes of vaccines, which provided key insights into primary viral, protein recall and anti-polysaccharide responses. Our results elucidate the early transcriptional programs that orchestrate vaccine immunity in humans and demonstrate the power of integrative network modeling. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Copyright information:

© 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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