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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Adam H Hsieh Jeong H Kim Engineering Building, Room 3242, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA Tel +1 301 405 7397 Fax +1 301 314 6868 Email hsieh@umd.edu

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.


Research Funding:

The authors would like to thank the National Institutes of Health (AR054051; AHH), the National Science Foundation (CBET-0845754; AHH), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (AHH), and the University of Maryland, College Park for providing funding that supported some of the work mentioned and the preparation of this manuscript.


  • degenerative disc disease
  • quality of life
  • intervertebral
  • aging

Update on the pathophysiology of degenerative disc disease and new developments in treatment strategies


Journal Title:

Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine


Volume 1


, Pages 191-199

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Degenerative disc disease (DDD) continues to be a prevalent condition that afflicts populations on a global scale. The economic impact and decreased quality of life primarily stem from back pain and neurological deficits associated with intervertebral disc degeneration. Although much effort has been invested into understanding the etiology of DDD and its relationship to the onset of back pain, this endeavor is a work in progress. The purpose of this review is to provide focused discussion on several areas in which recent advances have been made. Specifically, we have categorized these advances into early, middle, and late phases of age-related or degenerative changes in the disc and into promising minimally invasive treatments, which aim to restore mechanical and biological functions to the disc.

Copyright information:

© 2010 Hsieh and Yoon, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

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