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Author Notes:

Corresponding author email: ayman.fareed@va.gov

This manuscript has been read and approved by all authors.

This paper is unique and is not under consideration by any other publication and has not been published elsewhere.

The authors and peer reviewers of this paper report no conflicts of interest.

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  • illicit opioids
  • intoxication
  • treatment

Illicit opioid intoxication: Diagnosis and treatment


Journal Title:

Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment


Volume 5, Number 1


, Pages 17-25

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.

Copyright information:

© the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

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