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Author Notes:

Correspondence: ramzi.salloum@unc.edu

The study was jointly designed by all authors. KR and AM provided the data collection software/tool. RS, KW, and RN led the data collection.

RS and AM were responsible for data analysis. Findings were jointly interpreted by all authors. All authors contributed to successive drafts.

The final manuscript was approved by all authors.

The authors would like to thank Mona Ascha, Allison Kratka, Jason Ni, Leighanne Oh, and Alessandro Recchia, who provided essential contributions and constructive criticisms during the data collection phase of this study.

Competing interests: Dr. Ribisl and Ms. Myers have developed the Counter Tobacco Store Audit data collection system used in this study, and a tobacco retailer mapping system. Both will generate royalties when licensed. Dr. Ribisl is the Executive Director and Ms. Myers is the Deputy Director of Counter Tools, a nonprofit organization with a mission to disseminate store audit and mapping tools to public health practitioners working on policy change.


Research Funding:

Dr. Salloum was supported by the Cancer Care Quality Training Program from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health under [grant R25 CA116339].

Dr. Ribisl was supported by grant number 1U01 CA154281 from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Public, Environmental & Occupational Health

Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban


Journal Title:

BMC Public Health


Volume 13, Number 1


, Pages 534-534

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. Methods. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad® technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Results: Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. Conclusions: POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

Copyright information:

© 2013 Salloum et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/).

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