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Author Notes:

Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to J.K. (email: julia.kubanek@biosci.gatech.edu)

N.M. designed and performed experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript.

J.X. collected zebrafish embryos and performed all injections.

Z.B. and B.I. evaluated the specificity of anti-RLTGR antibodies.

J.X., C.H.S., and J.K. also designed the experiments and analyzed the data.

N.A.M. and B.I. contributed additional trouble-shooting and data interpretation.

N.A.M., C.H.S., and J.K. contributed towards reagents and equipments.

All authors contributed towards review of the final manuscript.

We thank Dr. Nick Parnell, Ms. Mary Beran and other members of Georgia Tech animal PRL for providing support for maintenance of zebrafish and Dr. Todd Streelman for providing cichlid embryos and his insights into the anatomy of taste buds and neuromasts.

We thank Blair Lunceford for assistance with WISH and Dr. Samantha Mascuch for zebrafish embryo collection and reviewing the manuscript.

We also thank Mr. Andrew Shaw and Dr. Aaron Lifland from core facilities at Georgia Institute of Technology for technical assistance with the microscopy.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant numbers IOS-1354837 and IOS-1354829, to J.K. and N.A.M., respectively).


  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Science & Technology - Other Topics

Zebrafish aversive taste co-receptor is expressed in both chemo-and mechanosensory cells and plays a role in lateral line development


Journal Title:

Scientific Reports


Volume 7, Number 1


, Pages 13475-13475

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species. However, its localization, function, and how it impacts sensory organ development in vivo is not known. Here we show that RL-TGR is expressed in zebrafish in both i) apical microvilli of the chemosensory cells of taste buds including the epithelium of lips and olfactory epithelium, and ii) mechanosensory cells of neuromasts belonging to the lateral line system. Loss-of-function analyses of RL-TGR resulted in significantly decreased number of neuromasts in the posterior lateral line system and decreased body length, suggesting that RL-TGR is involved in deposition and migration of the neuromasts. Collectively, these results provide the first in vivo genetic evidence of sensory cell-specific expression of this unusual co-receptor and reveal its additional role in the lateral line development in zebrafish.

Copyright information:

© The Author(s) 2017

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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