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Author Notes:

Corresponding author at: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2033 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA. E-mail addresse: P.H.Nguyen@cgiar.org (P.H. Nguyen)

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Hoa Pham, Dr. Truong V. Truong, and Dr. Hieu Nguyen for their work in field supervision and data collection, data management, and field work organization, respectively.

The funders had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by the Mathile Institute for the Advancement of Human Nutrition; the Micronutrient Initiative; and the National Institute of Health [grants T32 DK007734 (ESM) and UL1TR000454 (Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute)].


  • 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • AGP, α1-acid glycoprotein
  • AMDR, acceptable macronutrient distribution range
  • Anemia
  • CRP, C-reactive protein
  • Dietary intake
  • EAR, estimated average requirement
  • Hemoglobin
  • IOM, Institute of Medicine
  • IQR, interquartile range
  • RBP, retinol binding protein
  • SD, standard deviation
  • SE, standard error
  • SES, socioeconomic status
  • Vietnam
  • Vitamin D
  • WHO, World Health Organization
  • WRA, women of reproductive age
  • sTfR, soluble transferrin receptor

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D but not dietary vitamin D intake is associated with hemoglobin in women of reproductive age in rural northern Vietnam


Journal Title:

Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology


Volume 8


, Pages 41-48

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background and objectives Hypovitaminosis D and anemia are both prevalent in Vietnam, and low vitamin D status may be a risk factor for anemia. This study aimed to 1) describe vitamin D intake and its determinants, and 2) examine the associations of vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations with hemoglobin and anemia. Methods and study design We used data from the baseline survey of a pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial in women of reproductive age (WRA) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam (N = 4961). Vitamin D intake was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable regression models were used for the analyses. Results Median vitamin D intake was 0.2 µg/d (8.0 IU) [IQR: 0.4]. Age, being a farmer, food insecurity, and body mass index (BMI) were inversely associated with vitamin D intake, while socioeconomic status (SES), total energy intake, and education were positively associated with vitamin D intake. Vitamin D intake was not associated with hemoglobin concentration or anemia after adjusting for age, BMI, total energy intake, transferrin receptor, C-reactive protein, α 1 -acid glycoprotein, SES, occupation, education, ethnicity, and food insecurity (P = 0.56 and P = 0.65 for hemoglobin and anemia, respectively). Controlling for the same covariates, 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L (vs. ≥50 nmol/L) was associated with decreased hemoglobin concentrations (β = −0.91 (SE:0.42), P = 0.03), but not with anemia (P = 0.11). Conclusions Low vitamin D status may be linked to reduced hemoglobin concentrations, but the role of diet in this association was not evident in this population of WRA in Vietnam where dietary vitamin D intake was very low.

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© 2017 The Authors

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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