About this item:

416 Views | 691 Downloads

Author Notes:


The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.


Research Funding:

This work was funded by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada grant number 435-2013-0286 awarded to Dr. Andrew Scott Baron.

There were no additional external or internal funding sources.

Sources of implicit and explicit intergroup race bias among African-American children and young adults


Journal Title:



Volume 12, Number 9


, Pages e0183015-e0183015

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe). Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans) reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias. Understanding the environmental factors that contribute to the absence of an implicit ingroup bias among people from culturally lower status groups is critical for advancing theories of implicit intergroup cognition. The present study aimed to elucidate the factors that shape racial group bias among African-American children and young adults by examining their relationship with age, school composition (predominantly Black schools or racially mixed schools), parental racial attitudes and socialization messages among African-American children (N = 86) and young adults (N = 130). Age, school-type and parents’ racial socialization messages were all found to be related to the strength of pro-Black (ingroup) bias. We also found that relationships between implicit and explicit bias and frequency of parents' racial socialization messages depended on the type of school participants attended. Our results highlight the importance of considering environmental factors in shaping the magnitude and direction of implicit and explicit race bias among African-Americans rather than treating them as a monolithic group.

Copyright information:

© 2017 Gibson et al

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Export to EndNote