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Author Notes:

E-mail: tkrecek@rossvet.edu.kn

Conceived and designed the experiments: RCK ALW PMS.

Performed the experiments: RCK LMM LN LM.

Analyzed the data: RCK HM LM SRW.

Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RCK LMM SRW.

Wrote the paper: RCK HM PMS LM ALW SRW.

Mr. D Stockdale and Dr. K Lucas of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Mission in South Africa, and RUSVM are thanked for support; Dr. L Mrwebi, Dr. R Hyde, Mr. M Lephallo and other staff of the Veterinary Services Eastern Cape Province; the Cysticercosis Working Group of Eastern and Southern Africa for technical inputs to field collections; Mr. TE Krecek of Krecek and Krecek CC, and Mr. B Weaver, Mr. B Ho-Thanh, Mr. M McMillan, Mr. D John-King, J Heller, J Moore and A Hefter of RUSVM for technical assistance; Dr. LJS Harrison, Dr. P Dorny and Dr. N Praet for inputs with the diagnostic test analysis; Ms. MF Smith of the Agricultural Research Council for statistical support; the emerging pig producers who cooperated so willingly throughout this study; and several anonymous reviewers for valuable comments that helped improve previous versions of this manuscript.

Ms Lynne Michael was not employed by Bayer at the time that she worked on this study. She was employed afterwards.

This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS One policies on sharing data and materials.

Other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Research Funding:

The source of funding for this work was the United States Agency for International Development (South Africa).

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa


Journal Title:



Volume 7, Number 5


, Pages e37718-e37718

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the α = 0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p = 0.003), breed (p = 0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.35) (p = 0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area.

Copyright information:

© 2012 Krecek et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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