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Author Notes:

Correspondence to: Dr Kristin M Wall, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; kmwall@emory.edu

KMW and LBH contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data, drafted the article and revised it critically for important intellectual content, and gave final approval of the version to be published.

WK, BV, SL, RC, CV, LM, EC and JM contributed to the conception and design of the study, revised the article critically for important intellectual content, and gave final approval of the version to be published.

UO, NHK, IB and AT contributed to the study conception and design, revised the article critically for important intellectual content, and gave final approval of the version to be published.

SA contributed to the study design and conception, contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data, revised the article critically for important intellectual content and gave final approval of the version to be published.

We would like to acknowledge the couples and staff in Zambia that made this study possible.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

US Agency for International Development (International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, National Institutes of Health (NICHD R01 HD40125; NIMH R01 66767; D43 TW001042; P), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (5U2GPS000758).

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • SERO-DISCORDANT COUPLES
  • SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
  • SEXUAL-BEHAVIOR
  • RWANDA
  • ACQUISITION
  • PARTNERS
  • LUSAKA
  • SEROCONVERSION
  • TRANSMISSION
  • INFECTIONS

Sustained effect of couples' HIV counselling and testing on risk reduction among Zambian HIV serodiscordant couples

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Journal Title:

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Volume:

Volume 93, Number 4

Publisher:

, Pages 259-266

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review

Abstract:

Background We present temporal trends in self-reported and biological markers of unprotected sex and sex with concurrent partners in discordant couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing (CVCT). Methods: Heterosexual Zambian HIV-serodiscordant couples were enrolled into longitudinal follow-up in an open cohort (1994-2012). Multivariable Anderson-Gill models explored predictors of self-report and biological indicato rs of unprotected sex within (including sperm on a vaginal swab, incident pregnancy or incident linked HIV infection) and outside (including self-report, STI and unlinked HIV infection) the union. Measures of secular trends in baseline measures were also examined. Results: At enrolment of 3049 couples, men were 35'⋯years old on average, women were 29 years, and couples had been together for an average of 7'⋯years. M+F' couples reported an average of 16.6 unprotected sex acts in the 3'⋯months prior to enrolment (pre-CVCT), dropping to 5.3 in the > 0-3'⋯month interval, and 2.0 in > 6⋯month intervals (p-trend < 0.001). Corresponding values for M'F+ couples were 22.4 unprotected sex acts in the 3⋯months prior enrolment, dropping to 5.2 in the > 0-3⋯month interval, and 3.1 in > 6⋯month intervals (p-trend < 0.001). Significant reductions in self-report and biological markers of outside partners were also noted. Predictors of unprotected sex between study partners after CVCT included prevalent pregnancy (adjusted HR, aHR=1.6-1.9); HIV+ men being circumcised (aHR=1.2); and HIV' women reporting sex with outside partners (aHR=1.3), alcohol (aHR=1.2), injectable (aHR=1.4) or oral (aHR=1.4) contraception use. Fertility intentions were also predictive of unprotected sex (aHR=1.2-1.4). Secular trends indicated steady declines in reported outside partners and STIs. Conclusion: Reductions in self-reported unprotected sex after CVCT were substantial and sustained. Reinforced risk-reduction counselling in pregnant couples, couples desiring children and couples with HIV' women having outside partners or using alcohol or injectable or oral contraception are indicated.

Copyright information:

© 2016 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

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