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Author Notes:

Corresponding Author: Kristina M. Angelo, Phone: (404) 639-7026, Email:kangelo@cdc.gov

KMA contributed to the development, analysis and largely to the writing and editing of the manuscript.

ML, EC, DHH, KCK, KL, MPG, SHH, PK, DGL, PL, PG, SO, and FC contributed data to the analysis through their respective GeoSentinel site(s) and contributed significantly to the assessment of the analysis and manuscript writing.

CP and DHE contributed significantly to the development of the project and the editing of the manuscript.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

We wish to acknowledge the assistance of Kayce Maisel and Jodi Metzgar from the International Society of Travel Medicine for their assistance with data collection.

We would also like to acknowledge the valuable input from Paul Arguin, MD and Andrea Boggild, MD on the manuscript.

Competing interests DHH: Grant support from the International Society of Travel Medicine, support for travel through the GeoSentinel Cooperative Agreement; KL: Grant/research funding (unrelated to this publication) and travel support from GlaxoSmithKline; KCK: Grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Foundation Grant, Canadian research chair, patent for biomarkers for life-threatening infections (not related to this publication).

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Research Funding:

GeoSentinel is supported by a cooperative agreement (U50CK00189) between the CDC and International Society of Travel Medicine; funding was also received by GeoSentinel from the International Society of Travel Medicine and the Public Health Agency of Canada.


  • GeoSentinel
  • International travel
  • Malaria
  • Plasmodium spp

Malaria after international travel: A GeoSentinel analysis, 2003-2016

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Journal Title:

Malaria Journal


Volume 16, Number 1


, Pages 293-293

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: More than 30,000 malaria cases are reported annually among international travellers. Despite improvements in malaria control, malaria continues to threaten travellers due to inaccurate perception of risk and sub-optimal pre-travel preparation. Methods: Records with a confirmed malaria diagnosis after travel from January 2003 to July 2016 were obtained from GeoSentinel, a global surveillance network of travel and tropical medicine providers that monitors travel-related morbidity. Records were excluded if exposure country was missing or unascertainable or if there was a concomitant acute diagnosis unrelated to malaria. Records were analyzed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of international travellers with malaria. Results: There were 5689 travellers included; 325 were children < 18 years. More than half (53%) were visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most (83%) were exposed in sub-Saharan Africa. The median trip duration was 32 days (interquartile range 20-75); 53% did not have a pre-travel visit. More than half (62%) were hospitalized; children were hospitalized more frequently than adults (73 and 62%, respectively). Ninety-two per cent had a single Plasmodium species diagnosis, most frequently Plasmodium falciparum (4011; 76%). Travellers with P. falciparum were most frequently VFRs (60%). More than 40% of travellers with a trip duration ≤7 days had Plasmodium vivax. There were 444 (8%) travellers with severe malaria; 31 children had severe malaria. Twelve travellers died. Conclusion: Malaria remains a serious threat to international travellers. Efforts must focus on preventive strategies aimed on children and VFRs, and chemoprophylaxis access and preventive measure adherence should be emphasized.

Copyright information:

© 2017 The Author(s).

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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