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Author Notes:

Corresponding author: Ronald S. Weinstein, Department of Pathology, Arizona Telemedicine Program, University of Arizona College of Medicine, PO Box 245105, Tucson, AZ 85724-5105, USA. Email: rweinstein@telemedicine.arizona.edu

The authors gratefully acknowledge the encouragement and active input of Arizona Corporation Commissioner Bob Burns (former member of the AZ House of Representatives and AZ Senate), who cofounded the Arizona Telemedicine Program in 1996 with Dr Weinstein and chaired its quarterly Arizona Telemedicine Council meetings on the Arizona State Capitol Campus for the past 20 years.His participation is a model of excellence of civic involvement in a university-based program.

The authors thank Margaret M. Briehl, PhD, Mark A. Nelson, PhD, and Ana Maria Lopez, MD, MPH, for their excellent teaching in the K-12 general pathology course, in addition to 2 authors of the article (R.S.W. and A.R.G.).

The authors also thank Matt Johnston and Cheri Carswell, the BASIS faculty, and BASIS Schools, Inc.

Finally, we thank Allan J. Hamilton, M.D., FACS, David E. Biffar, MS, and Lisa Grisham, MS, NNP, of the Arizona Simulation Technology and Education Center (ASTEC) at the University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson, for providing our K-12 students with outstanding “simulated” hand-on experiences in patient care.

Their passion for teaching inspires us all.

All of the authors had access to the data and a role in writing the manuscript.

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


Research Funding:

The planning, construction and testing of the T-Health Amphitheater at the T-Health Institute, in Phoenix (eg, ATP “e-Classroom-of-the-Future” program) was funded, in part, by contracts from the United States Department of Defense through their Medical Advanced Technology program. Institute for Advanced Telemedicine and Telehealth (THealth) (PI) Department of Defense, Medical Advance Technology.


  • Flexner Report
  • health literacy
  • Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice
  • medical science
  • K-12 schools
  • medical education
  • pathology coursework
  • STEM curriculum
  • whole slide images

Flexner 3.0--Democratization of Medical Knowledge for the 21st Century: Teaching Medical Science Using K-12 General Pathology as a Gateway Course


Journal Title:

Academic Pathology


Volume 3, Number 0


Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


A medical school general pathology course has been reformatted into a K-12 general pathology course. This new course has been implemented at a series of 7 to 12 grade levels and the student outcomes compared. Typically, topics covered mirrored those in a medical school general pathology course serving as an introduction to the mechanisms of diseases. Assessment of student performance was based on their score on a multiple-choice final examination modeled after an examination given to medical students. Two Tucson area schools, in a charter school network, participated in the study. Statistical analysis of examination performances showed that there were no significant differences as a function of school (F = 0.258, P = .6128), with students at school A having an average test scores of 87.03 (standard deviation = 8.99) and school B 86.00 (standard deviation = 8.18; F = 0.258, P = .6128). Analysis of variance was also conducted on the test scores as a function of gender and class grade. There were no significant differences as a function of gender (F = 0.608, P = .4382), with females having an average score of 87.18 (standard deviation = 7.24) and males 85.61 (standard deviation = 9.85). There were also no significant differences as a function of grade level (F = 0.627, P = .6003), with 7th graders having an average of 85.10 (standard deviation = 8.90), 8th graders 86.00 (standard deviation = 9.95), 9th graders 89.67 (standard deviation = 5.52), and 12th graders 86.90 (standard deviation = 7.52). The results demonstrated that middle and upper school students performed equally well in K-12 general pathology. Student course evaluations showed that the course met the student’s expectations. One class voted K-12 general pathology their “elective course-of-the-year.”

Copyright information:

© The Author(s) 2016

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/).

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