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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Amy K. Hutchinson MD, 1365 B Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (amy.hutchinson@emory.edu)

The authors thank The Atlanta Area School for the Deaf for their support throughout the data collection process.

Dr. Hutchinson has a proprietary interest in the Handy Eye Chart.


Research Funding:

This study was supported by an unrestricted gift to the Emory Eye Center from The Georgia Knights Templar Foundation, an unrestricted grant to the Emory Eye Center from Research to Prevent Blindness Inc, New York, New York, and by National Eye Institute Departmental Core grant EY006360.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Ophthalmology
  • Pediatrics

Comparison of the Handy Eye Chart and the Lea Symbols Chart in a population of deaf children aged 7-18 years


Journal Title:

Journal of AAPOS


Volume 20, Number 3


, Pages 243-246

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


PURPOSE: To compare the results of visual acuity testing in a population of deaf children using the Handy Eye Chart versus the Lea Symbols Chart and to compare testability and preference between charts. METHODS: A total of 24 participants were recruited at the Atlanta Area School for the Deaf. Visual Acuity was evaluated using the Handy Eye Chart and the Lea Symbols Chart. Patient preference and duration of testing were measured. RESULTS: The mean difference between the visual acuity as measured by each chart was -0.02 logMAR (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.03). Testing with the Handy Eye Chart was an average of 13.79 seconds faster than testing with the Lea Symbols Chart (95% CI, 1.1-26.47; P = 0.03). Of the 24 participants, 17 (71%) preferred the Handy Eye Chart (95% CI: 49%-87%; P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The Handy Eye Chart is a fast, valid, and useful tool for measuring visual acuity in deaf children age 7-18 years. Additional research is needed to evaluate the utility of the Handy Eye Chart in younger children and deaf adults.

Copyright information:

© 2016 by the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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