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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Steve M. Potter, Laboratory for Neuroengineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Georgia Institute of Technology, 313 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA. e-mail: steve.potter@bme.gatech.edu

Edited by: Eberhard E. Fetz, University of Washington, USA

Reviewed by: Yang Dan, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Stavros Zanos, University of Washington, USA

We thank Guy Ben-Ary, Phil Gamblen, Peter Gee, Stephen Bobic, and Douglas Swehla for their contributions to the Silent Barrage robotic embodiment project.

We thank J. T. Shoemaker for performing tissue harvests.

We thank Ted French for his work creating the gas-permeable perfusion caps for delivery of AP5.

Finally, we gratefully acknowledge all those who have contributed to NeuroRighter’s hardware forums and supplied bug reports to the NeuroRighter code repository.

Jon Erickson and Neal Laxpati have been especially helpful in this regard.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by NSF COPN grant 1238097 and NIH grant 1R01NS079757-01, NSF GRFP Fellowship 08-593 to Jonathan P Newman, NSF GRFP Fellowship 09-603 to Ming-fai Fong, and NSF IGERT Fellowship DGE-0333411 to Jonathan P Newman and Ming-fai Fong.

Sharanya Arcot Desai was supported by a Faculty for the Future fellowship, provided by the Schlumberger Foundation.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Neurosciences
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • closed-loop
  • multichannel
  • real-time
  • multi-electrode
  • micro-electrode array
  • electrophysiology
  • open-source
  • network

Closed-loop, multichannel experimentation using the open-source NeuroRighter electrophysiology platform


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Neural Circuits


Volume 6, Number 98


, Pages 1-35

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API) for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system's abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments.

Copyright information:

© 2013 Newman, Zeller-Townson, Fong, Arcot Desai, Gross and Potter.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

Creative Commons License

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