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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Marc Noguera-Julian, Institut de Recerca de la SIDA IrsiCaixa-HIVACAT, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol. Ctra de Canyet s/n., Badalona, Catalonia, Spain (e-mail: mnoguera@irsicaixa.es); Vincent C. Marconi, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (e-mail: vcmarco@emory.edu)

The authors would like to express our deepest admiration and appreciation for the patients who participated in the study and the work of the Ponce Clinic at Grady Memorial Hospital for their commitment to improve patient care and support research.

The tremendous contributions on the part of the Oral Health Center staff have been essential to the success of this study.

The authors acknowledge the contribution study coordinators, Lebo Tsotetsi, and Ulochi Nwagwu as well as the dental staff, Anthony Rozier and Spencer Waddell.

They thank the IGTP Bioinformatics core facility staff for their contribution to this publication.

See publication for full list of author contributions.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


Research Funding:

This work was supported by the Emory University Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) (V.C.M., P30AI050409). TR acknowledges funding from Emory University Development Funds.

M.N-J, J.R, Y.G. and R.P acknowledge funds from the Gala contra la SIDA 2013 and 2014 editions, the Nit per la Recerca a la Catalunya Central 2015 edition and the Red de investigación en SIDA, RD12/0017/0002 as part of the Plan Nacional R + D + I and cofinanced by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII)-Subdirección General de Evaluación y el Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER).

J.R. is supported through a grant for pre-doctoral studies from Noel Alimentaria to the University of Vic (UVic-UCC).


  • HIV
  • Neisseria
  • oral microbiome
  • periodontal disease

Oral microbiome in HIV-associated periodontitis.

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Journal Title:



Volume 96, Number 12


, Pages e5821-e5821

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


HIV-associated periodontal diseases (PD) could serve as a source of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to characterize the oral microbial signatures of HIV+ and HIV- individuals at different levels of PD severity.This cross-sectional study included both HIV+ and HIV- patients with varying degrees of PD. Two tooth, 2 cheek, and 1 saliva samples were obtained for microbiome analysis. Mothur/SILVADB were used to classify sequences. R/Bioconductor (Vegan, PhyloSeq, and DESeq2) was employed to assess overall microbiome structure differences and differential abundance of bacterial genera between groups. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to assess immune activation in CD4 and CD8 cell populations.Around 250 cheek, tooth, and saliva samples from 50 participants (40 HIV+ and 10 HIV-) were included. Severity of PD was classified clinically as None/Mild (N), Moderate (M), and Severe (S) with 18 (36%), 16 (32%), and 16 (32%) participants in each category, respectively. Globally, ordination analysis demonstrated clustering by anatomic site (R2 = 0.25, P < 0.001). HIV status and PD severity showed a statistically significant impact on microbiome composition but only accounted for a combined 2% of variation. HIV+ samples were enriched in genera Abiotrophia, Neisseria, Kingella, and unclassified Neisseriaceae and depleted in Leptotrichia and Selenomonas. The Neisseria genus was consistently enriched in HIV+ participants regardless of sampling site and PD level. Immune markers were altered in HIV+ participants but did not show association with the oral microbiome.HIV-associated changes in oral microbiome result in subtle microbial signatures along different stages of PD that are common in independent oral anatomic sites.

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© 2017 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

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