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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Sidney H. Kennedy, sidney.kennedy@uhn.ca

All authors have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation.

SM completed the statistical analysis of the data and wrote the manuscript.

HEM conducted the neuropsychological testing, advised on the analysis of the data and assisted with the preparation of the article for publication.

JG assisted with the statistical analysis and preparation of the article.

PG was involved in the study design and the assessment of the patients recruited for the study, and advised on the preparation of the article.

SR was the coordinator for the original study and she assisted with the preparation of the article.

AC provided input into the acquisition of the data and assistance with the formatting of the article.

AKC contributed to preparation and revision of the article for publication.

HSM contributed to the conception and design of the study.

AL contributed to the conception and design and conducted the neurosurgical procedures.

SK contributed to the conception and design of the study, advised on the interpretation of the data, assisted significantly to the drafting of the article and revised it critically for important intellectual content.

All co-authors gave final approval of the final article.

PG has been a consultant for St. Jude Medical. HSM has received consulting and intellectual licensing fees from St. Jude Medical, Inc. AL has been a Consultant for Medtronic, St. Jude Medical and Boston Scientific.

He has intellectual property in the field of DBS.

SK has received grant/research support from Ontario Brain Institute (OBI) and CIHR.

He has received research support from Lundbeck, St. Jude Medical, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Clera, Inc.

He has received speaking fees from and/or is a member of an advisory board for: Lundbeck, Lundbeck Institute, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Servier, and Forest, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson and Johnson.

SMI received a CANMAT-Pfizer fellowship during the time this analysis was completed.

SM, PG, AKC, SR, and SK have contributed to the CAN-BIND (Canadian Biomarker Integration Network in Depression) Program which is supported by the OBI.

AC, HEM, and JG have no conflicts of interest.


Research Funding:

The study sponsor was University Health Network, Toronto.

This study was supported by a distinguished Investigator Award to Dr. Mayberg from the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD).

This paper was supported by ational Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression10.13039/100009670.


  • Science & Technology
  • Social Sciences
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Neurosciences
  • Psychology
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • treatment-resistant depression
  • cognition
  • deep brain stimulation
  • neurostimulation
  • neuropsychology
  • mood disorders
  • MOOD
  • TERM

Neurocognitive Predictors of Response in Treatment Resistant Depression to Subcallosal Cingulate Gyrus Deep Brain Stimulation


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience


Volume 11


, Pages 74-74

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical intervention with demonstrated effectiveness for treatment resistant depression (TRD), but longitudinal studies on the stability of cognitive parameters following treatment are limited. The objectives of this study are to (i) identify baseline cognitive predictors of treatment response to subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) DBS for unipolar TRD and (ii) compare neurocognitive performance prior to and 12 months after DBS implantation. Methods: Twenty unipolar TRD patients received SCG DBS for 12 months. A standardized neuropsychological battery was used to assess a range of neurocognitive abilities at baseline and after 12 months. Severity of depression was evaluated using the 17 item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results: Finger Tap-Dominant Hand Test and total number of errors made on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test predicted classification of patients as treatment responders or non-responders, and were independent of improvement in mood. Change in verbal fluency was the only neuropsychological test that correlated with change in mood from baseline to the follow up period. None of the neuropsychological measures displayed deterioration in cognitive functioning from baseline to repeat testing at 12 months. Limitations: This was an open label study with a small sample size which limits predictive analysis. Practice effects of the neuropsychological testing could explain the improvement from baseline to follow up on some tasks. Replication using a larger sample of subjects who received neuropsychological testing before and at least 12 months after DBS surgery is required. Conclusion: These preliminary results (i) suggest that psychomotor speed may be a useful baseline predictor of response to SCG DBS treatment and (ii) support previous suggestions that SCG DBS has no deleterious effects on cognition.

Copyright information:

© 2017 McInerney, McNeely, Geraci, Giacobbe, Rizvi, Ceniti, Cyriac, Mayberg, Lozano and Kennedy.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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