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Author Notes:

Corresponding author: Tel: +506-22380761 Fax: +506-22381298 E-mail: mario.baldi.salas@una.cr

We thank the valuable help from Sr. José Montenegro, Sr. Roberto Rojas, Sr. Adrián Zamora, Dr. Randall Arguedas, Dr. Luis “Chirras” Sandoval and Dr. Annika Keeley in the field; Ms Milixa Perea for the two toed sloth picture.

We also thank Dr. Mónica Retamosa and Dr. Manuel Spinola for valuable discussions about wildlife sampling in the neotropics.

Constructive comments from the reviewers helped to improve the ms presentation.

Ms. Junko Sakemoto offered valuable administrative support at Nagasaki University.

All authors declare that no competing interests exist.


Research Funding:

This study was funded by a Gorgas Memorial Research Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, NETROPICA Grant 04-N-2010, SENACYT Grant CCP06-040, Emory University, and Nagasaki University (Program for Nurturing Global Leaders in Tropical and Emerging Communicable Diseases).


  • zoonotic disease
  • reservoir
  • Leishmania Spp.

Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

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Journal Title:

Tropical Medicine and Health


Volume 43, Number 1


, Pages 75-78

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.

Copyright information:

© 2015 by The Japanese Society of Tropical Medicine

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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