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Author Notes:

Dora Romaguera, Email: d.romaguera-bosch@imperial.ac.uk

The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—TN: is the principal investigator of this project and had primary responsibility for final content; ER: is the overall coordinator of the EPIC study, which was conceptualized, designed, and implemented in collaboration with the main investigators in the collaborating countries; DR: was responsible of the study design, analyzing the data, interpreting the results, and drafting the manuscript, with close assistance from HW, PAW, ACV, PHP, CHVG, PF, VF, and MJ, and taking into account the comments and suggestions of the co-authors.

All other co-authors: contributed to the EPIC study design, subject recruitment, and data collection/acquisition and are also responsible for the ongoing follow-up and management of the EPIC cohort.

All authors contributed to data interpretation and critical reading of the manuscript and have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript.

We would like to acknowledge the contribution of all participants in the study.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Research Funding:

This study was funded by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) International Regular Grant Programme (Grant number 2009/44).

Dora Romaguera holds a Ramon y Cajal contract (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Spain and European Regional Development Fund; RYC-2011-08796).

n addition, EPIC investigators acknowledge funding from the following agencies: Europe Against Cancer Program of the European Commission (SANCO); German Cancer Aid; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ); German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF); Danish Cancer Society; Catalan Institute of Oncology, Spain; Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health; Spanish Regional Governments of Andalucía, Asturias, Basque Country, Murcia (no. 6236) and Navarra; ISCIII RCESP exp. C03/09 and ISCIII RETICC RD06/0020/0091, Spain; Cancer Research UK; Medical Research Council, United Kingdom; The Hellenic Health Foundation, Greece; Italian Association for Research on Cancer (AIRC); Italian National Research Council; Fondazione-Istituto Banco Napoli, Italy; Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports, Dutch Prevention Funds, LK Research Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), The Netherlands; Swedish Cancer Society; Swedish Scientific Council; Regional Government of Skåne, Sweden; Helga—Nordic Center of Excellence Programme in Nutrition and Health; French League against Cancer (LNCC); National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), France; Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (MGEN), France; 3 M Co., France; Gustave Roussy Institute (IGR), France; and General Councils of France.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Medicine, General & Internal
  • General & Internal Medicine
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Diet
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Physical activity
  • Survival
  • Weight
  • RISK

Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients: a cohort study

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Journal Title:

BMC Medicine


Volume 13, Number 1


, Pages 107-107

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: Cancer survivors are advised to follow lifestyle recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness proposed by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer prevention. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher concordance with these recommendations measured using an index score (the WCRF/AICR score) was associated with lower cancer incidence and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations and mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: The association between the WCRF/AICR score (score range 0-6 in men and 0-7 in women; higher scores indicate greater concordance) assessed on average 6.4years before diagnosis and CRC-specific (n = 872) and overall mortality (n = 1,113) was prospectively examined among 3,292 participants diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (mean follow-up time after diagnosis 4.2years). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality. Results: The HRs (95% CIs) for CRC-specific mortality among participants in the second (score range in men/women: 2.25-2.75/3.25-3.75), third (3-3.75/4-4.75), and fourth (4-6/5-7) categories of the score were 0.87 (0.72-1.06), 0.74 (0.61-0.90), and 0.70 (0.56-0.89), respectively (P for trend <0.0001), compared to participants with the lowest concordance with the recommendations (category 1 of the score: 0-2/0-3). Similar HRs for overall mortality were observed (P for trend 0.004). Meeting the recommendations on body fatness and plant food consumption were associated with improved survival among CRC cases in mutually adjusted models. Conclusions: Greater concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body fatness prior to CRC diagnosis is associated with improved survival among CRC patients.

Copyright information:

© 2015 Romaguera et al.; licensee BioMed Central

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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