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Author Notes:

Correspondence: ajit.yoganathan@bme.gatech.edu

Ikechukwu U. Okafor and Arvind Santhanakrishnan contributed equally to this work.

IO: Participated in the design and construction of the LV model. Participated in CMR acquisition and data analysis. Performed stereo photogrammetry experiments and data analysis. Involved in the interpretation of all data. Involved in writing of manuscript.

AS: Participated in the design and construction of the LV model. Participated in CMR acquisition and data analysis. Performed stereo photogrammetry experiments and data analysis. Involved in the interpretation of all data. Involved in writing of manuscript.

BC: Participated in the design and construction of the LV model. Participated in CMR acquisition and data acquisition. Performed stereo photogrammetry experiments and data analysis. Critically revised manuscript. Gave final approval for manuscript publishing.

LM: Participated in CMR acquisition and data analysis. Interpreted CMR data. Critically revised manuscript. Gave final approval for manuscript publishing.

JO: Involved in conception of experimental idea and design. Performed in CMR acquisition. Involved in the interpretation of all data. Critically revised manuscript. Gave final approval for manuscript publishing.

AY: Involved in conception of experimental idea and design. Involved in the interpretation of all data. Critically revised manuscript. Gave final approval for manuscript publishing.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

The authors would like to thank Stephanie Clement-Guinaudeau (Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine) and Michael Larche (Center for Systems Imaging, Wesley Woods Health Center, Emory University School of Medicine) for their technical assistance with the CMR experiments.

The authors would also like to thank Procter & Gamble for providing the glycerin and VenAir (Terrassa, Spain) for the casting of the LV models used in this study.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

This work was conducted at the CFM Lab Georgia Tech & Emory, while the authors (Arvind Santhanakrishnan and Lucia Mirabella) were post-doctoral fellows.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

This study was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (RO1HL07262).

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging
  • Cardiovascular System & Cardiology
  • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance
  • Left ventricle phantom
  • MR segmentation
  • MR reconstruction
  • MR validation
  • Particle image velocimetry
  • Stereo-photogrammetry
  • FSI validation
  • BLOOD-FLOW
  • VORTEX FORMATION
  • HEART-FAILURE
  • DYNAMICS
  • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
  • QUANTIFICATION
  • SIMULATION
  • ANATOMY
  • IMAGES
  • PHASE

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance compatible physical model of the left ventricle for multi-modality characterization of wall motion and hemodynamics

Tools:

Journal Title:

Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

Volume:

Volume 17, Number 1

Publisher:

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF

Abstract:

Background: The development of clinically applicable fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models of the left heart is inherently challenging when using in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data for validation, due to the lack of a well-controlled system where detailed measurements of the ventricular wall motion and flow field are available a priori. The purpose of this study was to (a) develop a clinically relevant, CMR-compatible left heart physical model; and (b) compare the left ventricular (LV) volume reconstructions and hemodynamic data obtained using CMR to laboratory-based experimental modalities. Methods: The LV was constructed from optically clear flexible silicone rubber. The geometry was based off a healthy patient's LV geometry during peak systole. The LV phantom was attached to a left heart simulator consisting of an aorta, atrium, and systemic resistance and compliance elements. Experiments were conducted for heart rate of 70 bpm. Wall motion measurements were obtained using high speed stereo-photogrammetry (SP) and cine-CMR, while flow field measurements were obtained using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and phase-contrast magnetic resonance (PC-CMR). Results: The model reproduced physiologically accurate hemodynamics (aortic pressure = 120/80 mmHg; cardiac output = 3.5 L/min). DPIV and PC-CMR results of the center plane flow within the ventricle matched, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with flow from the atrium into the LV having a velocity of about 1.15 m/s for both modalities. The normalized LV volume through the cardiac cycle computed from CMR data matched closely to that from SP. The mean difference between CMR and SP was 5.5 ± 3.7 %. Conclusions: The model presented here can thus be used for the purposes of: (a) acquiring CMR data for validation of FSI simulations, (b) determining accuracy of cine-CMR reconstruction methods, and (c) conducting investigations of the effects of altering anatomical variables on LV function under normal and disease conditions.

Copyright information:

© 2015 Okafor et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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