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Author Notes:

E-mail: cjclark@umn.edu

Conceived and designed the experiments: CJC SER AA RAS SSB MDR IWB JEC RK SFS.

Analyzed the data: CJC AA RAS JEC.

Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MDR SFS SSB RK.

Wrote the paper: CJC RAS.

Dr. Cari Jo Clark had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

This research uses data from Add Health, a program project directed by Kathleen Mullan Harris and designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Special acknowledgment is due Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design.

Information on how to obtain the Add Health data files is available on the Add Health website (http://www.cpc.unc.edu/addhealth).

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Research Funding:

Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Award Number 8UL1TR000114-02 (Drs. Clark and Connett).

Dr. Clark was additionally funded in part by grant number R03HD068045-02 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Dr. Resnick was supported in part by Cooperative Agreement Number 5U48DP001939 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Dr. Everson-Rose was supported in part by grant 1P60MD003422 from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities.

Additional support was provided by the Program in Health Disparities Research and the Applied Clinical Research Program (Drs. Clark and Dr. Everson-Rose) at the University of Minnesota.

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was funded by grant P01-HD31921 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations.


  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Science & Technology - Other Topics

Effect of Partner Violence in Adolescence and Young Adulthood on Blood Pressure and Incident Hypertension


Journal Title:



Volume 9, Number 3


, Pages e92204-e92204

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension.

Copyright information:

© 2014 Clark et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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