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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Gabriela Paz-Bailey, MD, PhD, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS E-46, Atlanta, GA 30333. gmb5@cdc.gov.

The authors would like to thank the NHBS team, community partners, and survey participants for their contributions to this work.

Conflict of interest: None declared.


Research Funding:

Funding was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Infectious Diseases

Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011


Journal Title:

Sexually Transmitted Diseases


Volume 43, Number 6


, Pages 346-352

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Background: Annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is considered a key strategy for HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). In Puerto Rico, HIV research has primarily focused on injection drug use, yet male-to-male sexual transmission has been increasing in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system collected in 2011 in San Juan, Puerto Rico, were analyzed to identify factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (recent testing). Results: Overall, 50% of participants were tested recently. In the multivariate analysis, testing recently was associated with having multiple partners in the past 12 months (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] [≥4 vs 1 partner] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2–2.0), visiting a health care provider in the past 12 months (aPR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04–1.8), and disclosing male-male attraction/sex to a health care provider (aPR< 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1–1.7). Conclusions: Human immunodeficiency virus testing was suboptimal among MSM in San Juan. Strategies to increase HIV testing among MSM may include promoting HIV testing for all sexually active MSM including those with fewer partners, increasing utilization of the healthcare system, and improving patient-provider communication.

Copyright information:

© 2016, American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association.

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