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Author Notes:

Correspondence: idris.guessous@hcuge.ch.

IG, MB and DP designed the study.

SEY, MP, BP, DA, GE, NA, MM, FP, BV, APB, PYM, MB, CBE, MB, IG participated actively to data acquisition.

DP, IG, MB analyzed the data.

DP and IG wrote the manuscript.

The authors would like to express their gratitude to the participants of the SKIPOGH study and to the investigators who have contributed to the recruitment, in particular Marie-Odile Levy, Guler Gök-Sogüt, Ulla Schüpbach, and Dominique Siminski.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

The funding organization had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data; and preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to sensitivity of the data, as it may compromise individual privacy, but may be available from Professors Murielle Bochud (main coordinator of the SKIPOGH study) and Professor Idris Guessous, on reasonable request.


Research Funding:

The SKIPOGH study is supported by a grant from the Swiss national science foundation (FN 33CM30-124087).


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Nutrition & Dietetics
  • Caffeine
  • Paraxanthine
  • Theophylline
  • Urinary excretion
  • Questionnaire
  • Population-based

Relation of 24-hour urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions with self-reported consumption of coffee and other caffeinated beverages in the general population

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Journal Title:

Nutrition and Metabolism


Volume 13


, Pages 81-81

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: Caffeine intake is generally estimated by self-reported consumption, but it remains unclear how well self-report associates with metabolite urinary excretion. We investigated the associations of self-reported consumption of caffeinated drinks with urinary excretion of caffeine and its major metabolites in an adult population. Methods: We used data from the population-based Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension (SKIPOGH) study. Consumption of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee and other caffeinated beverages was assessed by self-administered questionnaire. Quantification of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 24-h urine. Association of reported consumption of caffeinated drinks with urinary caffeine derived metabolites was determined by quantile regression. We then explored the association between urinary metabolite excretion and dichotomized weekly consumption frequency of caffeinated coffee, with Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: In the present analysis, we included 598 individuals (52% women, mean age =46 ± 17 years). Self-reported caffeinated coffee intake was positively associated with 24-h urinary excretions of paraxanthine, theophylline and caffeine (p < 0.001), whereas reported intakes of decaffeinated coffee and other caffeinated beverages showed no association. In ROC analysis, optimal discrimination between individuals consuming less than one caffeinated coffee/week, vs. at least one coffee, was obtained for 24-h urinary paraxanthine (Area Under Curve (AUC) = 0.868, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.830;0.906]), with slightly lower performance for theophylline and caffeine, whereas theobromine did not allow any discrimination. Conclusion: Our results suggest that reported consumption of caffeinated coffee is positively associated with 24-h urinary excretion of caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, and may be used as a marker of caffeine intake for epidemiological studies.

Copyright information:

© 2016 The Author(s). The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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