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Author Notes:

Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.L.M. (email: martin.moore@emory.edu).

S.L. and M.T.N. contributed equally to this work.

S.L., M.T.N., M.G.C., J.B.J., E.A.S., A.E.K. and R.M.-L. performed experiments.

K.R., Y.A.B., J.E.G. and P.S. provided reagents and advice.

X.L. and D.D.E. provided rhinovirus types.

S.L., M.T.N. and M.L.M. designed the experiments, analysed data and wrote the paper.

For acknowledgments, please see the full article.

Competing interests: M.L.M. co-founded and serves as Chief Scientific Officer for Meissa Vaccines, Inc. S.L., M.T.N. and M.L.M are co-inventors in a patent application (PCT/US2016/037658) describing the rhinovirus vaccine reported in this paper. The vaccine technology has been optioned to Meissa Vaccines, Inc. by Emory University. The remaining authors declare no competing financial interests.


Research Funding:

This study was supported by a pilot grant from the Emory+Children’s Center for Childhood Infections and Vaccines (CCIV) to M.L.M and in part by Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health grants 1R01AI087798 and 1U19AI095227 to M.L.M. This work is dedicated to ‘A.R.’.


  • Science & Technology
  • Multidisciplinary Sciences
  • Inactivated vaccines
  • Virology

A polyvalent inactivated rhinovirus vaccine is broadly immunogenic in rhesus macaques

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Journal Title:

Nature Communications


Volume 7


, Pages 12838-12838

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


As the predominant aetiological agent of the common cold, human rhinovirus (HRV) is the leading cause of human infectious disease. Early studies showed that a monovalent formalin-inactivated HRV vaccine can be protective, and virus-neutralizing antibodies (nAb) correlated with protection. However, co-circulation of many HRV types discouraged further vaccine efforts. Here, we test the hypothesis that increasing virus input titres in polyvalent inactivated HRV vaccine may result in broad nAb responses. We show that serum nAb against many rhinovirus types can be induced by polyvalent, inactivated HRVs plus alhydrogel (alum) adjuvant. Using formulations up to 25-valent in mice and 50-valent in rhesus macaques, HRV vaccine immunogenicity was related to sufficient quantity of input antigens, and valency was not a major factor for potency or breadth of the response. Thus, we have generated a vaccine capable of inducing nAb responses to numerous and diverse HRV types.

Copyright information:

© 2016, The Author(s).

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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