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Author Notes:

Email: rsarnol@emory.edu

The authors would like to thank the Emory University Hospital and Clinic and their staff for facilitating patient consent and operating room access. They also acknowledge Lane Ringer, Clinical Research Coordinator and employee of Emory University Department of Urology, for obtaining updated IRB protocols and consents.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


Aquaporin-1 Protein Levels Elevated in Fresh Urine of Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients: Potential Use for Screening and Classification of Incidental Renal Lesions


Journal Title:

Disease Markers


Volume 2014, Number 135649


Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Introduction and Objectives. There are over 65,000 new cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) each year, yet there is no effective clinical screening test for RCC. A single report claimed no overlap between urine levels of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in patients with and without RCC (Mayo Clin Proc. 85:413, 2010). Here, we used archived and fresh RCC patient urine to validate this report. Methods. Archived RCC, fresh prenephrectomy RCC, and non-RCC negative control urines were processed for Western blot analysis. Urinary creatinine concentrations were quantified by the Jaffe reaction (Nephron 16:31, 1976). Precipitated protein was dissolved in 1x SDS for a final concentration of 2 μg/µL creatinine. Results. Negative control and archived RCC patient urine failed to show any AQP1 protein by Western blot analysis. Fresh RCC patient urine is robustly positive for AQP1. There was no signal overlap between fresh RCC and negative control, making differentiation straightforward. Conclusions. Our data confirms that fresh urine of patients with RCC contains easily detectable AQP1 protein. However, archival specimens showed an absence of detectable AQP1 indistinguishable from negative control. These findings suggest that a clinically applicable diagnostic test for AQP1 in fresh urine may be useful for detecting RCC.

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© 2014 Shilpa Sreedharan et al.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits distribution, public display, and publicly performance, making multiple copies, distribution of derivative works, provided the original work is properly cited. This license requires credit be given to copyright holder and/or author, copyright and license notices be kept intact.

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