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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Robert E. Gross, Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365 Clifton Road, NE Suite 6200, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA, e-mail: rgross@emory.edu.

Nealen G. Laxpati designed hardware adaptations, ferrules, calibration hardware and software, performed the experiments and their analysis.

Jonathan P. Newman and Riley Zeller-Townson wrote the adaptations to the NeuroRighter software for open and closed-loop stimulation, and Babak Mahmoudi coded the closed-loop stimulation experiment.

Claire-Anne Gutekunst and Nealen G. Laxpati prepared the viral vectors and performed histology.

Robert E. Gross oversaw the work and advised platform and experimental design, and data analysis.

All authors contributed to the manuscript.

For acknowledgments, please see the full article.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

This work was funded by a seed grant from the Emory Neurosciences Initiative, support from the American Epilepsy Society, Translational Neurology research fellowships to Nealen G. Laxpati and Babak Mahmoudi (5T32NS7480-12), Epilepsy Research Foundation predoctoral fellowship to Nealen G. Laxpati, NSF GRFP Fellowship 08-593 and NSF IGERT Fellowship DGE-0333411 to Jonathan P. Newman. Riley Zeller-Townson was supported by NSF EFRI #1238097, NIH 1R01NS079757-01, and the ASEE SMART Fellowship.


  • LED
  • NeuroRighter
  • closed-loop
  • electrophysiology
  • microelectrode array
  • open-source
  • optogenetics

Real-time in vivo optogenetic neuromodulation and multielectrode electrophysiologic recording with NeuroRighter


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Neuroengineering


Volume 7, Number October


, Pages 40-40

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Optogenetic channels have greatly expanded neuroscience's experimental capabilities, enabling precise genetic targeting and manipulation of neuron subpopulations in awake and behaving animals. However, many barriers to entry remain for this technology - including low-cost and effective hardware for combined optical stimulation and electrophysiologic recording. To address this, we adapted the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology platform for use in awake and behaving rodents in both open and closed- loop stimulation experiments. Here, we present these cost-effective adaptations, including commercially available LED light sources; custom-made optical ferrules; 3D printed ferrule hardware and software to calibrate and standardize output intensity; and modifications to commercially available electrode arrays enabling stimulation proximally and distally to the recording target. We then demonstrate the capabilities and versatility of these adaptations in several open and closed-loop experiments, demonstrate spectrographic methods of analyzing the results, as well as discuss artifacts.

Copyright information:

© 2014 Laxpati, Mahmoudi, Gutekunst, Newman, Zeller-Townsonand and Gross.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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