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Author Notes:

Email: jzhao5@tulane.edu

Conceived and designed the experiments: JZ.

Performed the experiments: KU VTT LGB DPJ.

Analyzed the data: QZ YZ.

Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JZ.

Wrote the paper: JZ QZ YZ.

Data interpretation, discussion, and manuscript review: LGB JGU ETL BVH.

The authors would like to thank the Strong Heart Study participants, Indian Health Service facilities, and participating tribal communities for their extraordinary cooperation and involvement, which has contributed to the success of the Strong Heart Study.

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Indian Health Service.

The funder provided support in the form of salaries for authors [QZ, YZ, LGB, JGU, KU, VTT, DPJ, ETL, BVH, and JZ], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Research Funding:

This study was supported by the National Institute of Health (NIH) grants R01DK091369, K01AG034259, R21HL092363, P20HL113451, R01AG038746 and cooperative agreement grants U01HL65520, U01HL41642, U01HL41652, U01HL41654, and U01HL65521.

Dr. Qi Zhao is a Tulane University Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH) scholar supported by Award K12HD043451 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institute of Health.

Metabolic profiles of obesity in American Indians: The strong heart family study

Journal Title:



Volume 11, Number 7


, Pages e0159548-e0159548

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

Copyright information:

© 2016 Zhao et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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