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Author Notes:

Correspondence should be addressed to Field F. Willingham, field.willingham@emoryhealthcare.org


Research Funding:

This work supported by departmental funding.

Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery in humans: A review


Journal Title:

Minimally Invasive Surgery


Volume 2012


, Pages 189296-189296

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) had its origins in numerous small animal studies primarily examining safety and feasibility. In human trials, safety and feasibility remain at the forefront; however, additional logistic, practical, and regulatory requirements must be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and summarize published studies to date of NOTES in humans. The literature review was performed using PUBMED and MEDLINE databases. Articles published in human populations between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. A review of this time period resulted in 48 studies describing procedures in 916 patients. Transcolonic and transvesicular procedures were excluded. The most common procedure was cholecystectomy (682, 75%). The most common approach was transvaginal (721, 79%). 424 procedures (46%) were pure NOTES and 491 (54%) were hybrid NOTES cases. 127 (14%) were performed in the United States of America and 789 (86%) were performed internationally. Since 2007, there has been major development in NOTES in human populations. A preponderance of published NOTES procedures were performed internationally. With further development, NOTES may make less invasive surgery available to a larger human population.

Copyright information:

© 2012 Michelle P. Clark et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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