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Author Notes:

Corresponding author: Deborah F. Billmire, MD, Indiana University, Riley Hospital for Children, 705 Riley Hospital Dr, Ste 2500, Indianapolis, IN 46202; e-mail: dbillmir@iupui.edu.

Conception and design: Deborah F. Billmire, Mark Krailo, A. Lindsay Frazier.

Collection and assembly of data: Deborah F. Billmire, John W. Cullen, Frederick J. Rescorla, Mary Davis, Marc G. Schlatter, Thomas A. Olson, Marcio H. Malogolowkin, Farzana Pashankar, Mark Krailo, Rachel A. Egler, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, A. Lindsay Frazier.

Data analysis and interpretation; Manuscript writing; Final approval of manuscript: All authors.

The authors indicated no potential conflicts of interest.



  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Oncology

Surveillance After Initial Surgery for Pediatric and Adolescent Girls With Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors: Report From the Children's Oncology Group

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Journal Title:

Journal of Clinical Oncology


Volume 32, Number 5


, Pages 465-470

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Purpose To determine whether overall survival (OS) can be preserved for patients with stage I pediatric malignant ovarian germ cell tumor (MOGCT) with an initial strategy of surveillance after surgical resection. Patients and Methods Between November 2003 and July 2011, girls age 0 to 16 years with stage I MOGCT were enrolled onto Children's Oncology Group study AGCT0132. Required histology included yolk sac, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma. Surveillance included measurement of serum tumor markers and radiologic imaging at defined intervals. In those with residual or recurrent disease, chemotherapy with compressed PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) was initiated every 3 weeks for three cycles (cisplatin 33 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3, etoposide 167 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3, bleomycin 15 U/m2 on day 1). Survivor functions for event-free survival (EFS) and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Twenty-five girls (median age, 12 years) with stage I MOGCT were enrolled onto AGCT0132. Twenty-three patients had elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at diagnosis. Predominant histology was yolk sac. After a median follow-up of 42 months, 12 patients had evidence of persistent or recurrent disease (4-year EFS, 52%; 95% CI, 31% to 69%). Median time to recurrence was 2 months. All patients had elevated AFP at recurrence; six had localized disease, two had metastatic disease, and four had tumor marker elevation only. Eleven of 12 patients experiencing relapse received successful salvage chemotherapy (4-year OS, 96%; 95% CI, 74% to 99%). Conclusion Fifty percent of patients with stage I pediatric MOGCT can be spared chemotherapy; treatment for those who experience recurrence preserves OS. Further study is needed to identify the factors that predict recurrence and whether this strategy can be extended successfully to older adolescents and young adults.

Copyright information:

© 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

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