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Author Notes:

Correspondence should be addressed to Chandan Devireddy; cdevire@emory.edu

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.



  • Cardiology

Physiologic Functional Evaluation of Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft to Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Steal due to Unligated First Thoracic Branch in a Case of Refractory Angina.


Journal Title:

Case Reports in Cardiology


Volume 2016


, Pages 3175798-3175798

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Unligated side branches of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) have been described in the literature as a cause of coronary steal resulting in angina. Despite a number of studies reporting successful side branch embolization to relieve symptoms, this phenomenon remains controversial. Hemodynamic evidence of coronary steal using angiographic and intravascular Doppler techniques has been supported by some and rejected by others. In this case study using an intracoronary Doppler wire with adenosine, we demonstrate that a trial occlusion of the LIMA thoracic side branch with selective balloon inflation can confirm physiologic significant steal and whether coil embolization of the side branch is indicated.

Copyright information:

© 2016 Fadi J. Sawaya et al.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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