About this item:

361 Views | 489 Downloads

Author Notes:

Corresponding author: Nalaka S.Gooneratne, Ralston House, Rm. 220, 3615 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Tel.: +1 215 349 5938; fax: +1 215 573 8684. E-mail address: ngoonera@mail.med.upenn.edu.

The investigators would like to thank Marion Whitlock, Elizabeth Roben and Lea Riedi for their assistance with this project.

Informed Consent: This study was approved by the University of Pennsylvania Institutional Review Board #8 as a low-risk exempt protocol, ID # 708663. It was approved for a HIPAA authorization waiver. The protocol was also evaluated and approved by the University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center (UPCC) Clinical Trials Scientific Review and Monitoring Committee (CTSRMC), protocol ID # 06503. Verbal informed consent was obtained on all subjects participating in the study.

No authors have conflicts of interest related to this publication.


Research Funding:

This study was supported by NIH contracts NIA K23 AG01021, NCRR M01 RR00040 and the Veterans Affairs Competitive Pilot Project Fund, VISN 4.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Oncology
  • Respiratory System
  • lung cancer
  • sleep disorders
  • cancer survivor
  • aged
  • quality of life
  • long-term survival

Sleep and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors


Journal Title:

Lung Cancer


Volume 58, Number 3


, Pages 403-410

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Background: Sleep problems are common in lung cancer survivors, yet little is known about the prevalence, determinants, and effects on quality of life (QoL) of these sleep problems in long-term lung cancer survivors. Methods: A case-control study design comparing 76 elderly lung cancer survivors (LCS, >5 years post diagnosis with mean survival time of 8 years ± 2.1 years) and 78 elderly non-cancer controls (NCC). Measurements included a standardized questionnaire for sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI), and analogue scales for dyspnea, pain, and other comorbid symptoms, as well as demographic factors and cancer history. Results: Overall, 56.6% of LCS had poor sleep (PSQI global score > 5) as compared to only 29.5% of NCC (p < 0.001), and 49.2% of LCS who did not have sleep difficulties prior to their lung cancer diagnosis ultimately developed them. There was also evidence of significant impairments in sleep efficiency in LCS (78.3%) relative to NCC (89.6%, p < 0.001), predominantly due to increased nocturnal awakenings. A single-item analogue scale for sleep quality was not as effective in identifying sleep problems as more specific questions about sleep duration and sleep efficiency. Poor sleep quality was significantly correlated with impairments in quality of life, even when controlling for other factors, such as dyspnea. Conclusions: Even 8 years after diagnosis, LCS continue to have significant sleep difficulties. By asking specific questions about sleep medication use, nocturnal awakenings and sleep efficiency, health care providers can identify sleep problems that could be treated and potentially improve the quality of life of their patients. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Copyright information:

© 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Creative Commons License

Export to EndNote