About this item:

522 Views | 656 Downloads

Author Notes:

Correspondence: Madeleine E. Hackney, mehack@emory.edu

MH and KM drafted the manuscript, performed literature review, and edited the final manuscript for submission.

HL and JB contributed literature search and review and tabular organization.

BC performed final review and critical appraisal of the manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government.


Research Funding:

This work is supported by the US Department of Veterans Affairs’ Rehabilitation Research and Development grants: #0870-01A1-MH and E-0956W-KM.


  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurosciences
  • Neurosciences & Neurology
  • lower limb
  • motor control
  • neuroimaging
  • rhythm
  • externally cued
  • internally guided
  • Parkinson's disease

Context-Dependent Neural Activation: Internally and Externally Guided Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement in Individuals With and Without Neurodegenerative Disease


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Neurology


Volume 6, Number DEC


, Pages 251-251

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients' quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, and Tai Chi) have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control, and postural stability in people with PD (1-6). However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task-specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG) and externally guided (EG) movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG vs. EG designs. Because of the potential task-specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training) and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural activity with respect to PD impairment during rhythmic IG and EG movement will facilitate the development of novel and effective therapeutic approaches to mobility limitations and postural instability.

Copyright information:

© 2015 Hackney, Lee, Battisto, Crosson and McGregor

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Creative Commons License

Export to EndNote