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Author Notes:

Email Address: Michael R. Borich :michael.borich@emory.edu

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health under award No.5R24HD050821-11 and was performed by Emory University School of Medicine under subaward with the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago.


  • stroke
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • electroencephalography
  • rehabilitation
  • cortical excitability
  • connectivity

Opportunities for concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography to characterize cortical activity in stroke


Journal Title:

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience


Volume 9


Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Despite the high incidence and mortality of stroke, sensitive and specific brain-based biomarkers predicting persisting disabilities are lacking. Both neuroimaging techniques like electroencephalography (EEG) and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have proven useful in predicting prognosis, recovery trajectories and response to rehabilitation in individuals with stroke. We propose, however, that additional synergetic effects can be achieved by simultaneously combining both approaches. Combined TMS-EEG is able to activate discrete cortical regions and directly assess local cortical reactivity and effective connectivity within the network independent of the integrity of descending fiber pathways and also outside the motor system. Studying cortical reactivity and connectivity in patients with stroke TMS-EEG may identify salient neural mechanisms underlying motor disabilities and lead to novel biomarkers of stroke pathophysiology which can then be used to assess, monitor, and refine rehabilitation approaches for individuals with significant disability to improve outcomes and quality of life after stroke.

Copyright information:

© 2015 Sato, Bergmann and Borich.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits distribution of derivative works, making multiple copies, distribution, public display, and publicly performance, provided the original work is properly cited. This license requires credit be given to copyright holder and/or author, copyright and license notices be kept intact.

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