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Author Notes:

Email: lbhadda@emory.edu

Conceived and designed the experiments: LBH CF DJJ HT CC AGB MCH GSS IH SP FK. Performed the experiments: LBH AGB HT TC LM BS SP JC. Analyzed the data: LBH CF DJJ HT CC TC BS SP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LBH CF DJJ HT CC TC BS SP. Wrote the paper: LBH CF DJJ HT CC TC LM JC BS FK AGB MCH GSS IH SP.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Research Funding:

This study received financial support from an anonymous foundation and from the center for AIDS research at Emory University (P30 AI050409).

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi

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Journal Title:



Volume 10, Number 3


, Pages e0121039-e0121039

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic. Methods: 200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010. Results: Most women (95%) did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy). Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage. Discussion: High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.

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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Universal : Public Domain Dedication License ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/), which permits making multiple copies, distribution, public display, and publicly performance, distribution of derivative works, provided the original work is properly cited.

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