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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Mark J. Mulligan, MD, Professor of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, 500 Irvin Court, Suite 200, Decatur, GA 30030 (mark.mulligan@emory.edu).

We gratefully acknowledge that the vaccine and adjuvant were kindly provided by HHS/BARDA from the National Pre-pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile and were manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. and Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc., respectively.

We are grateful for the expertise provided by colleagues at HHS/BARDA: Michael O′Hara, Corrina Pavetto, Bai Yeh, Vittoria Cioce, and Lou Mocca.

The investigators at the 4 VTEUs thank the study participants who made this study possible. The DMID 10-0016 Mix and Match Study Group includes the authors listed in the byline and the following participating investigators and staff from our institutions: Jenifer Whitaker, William Emery, Allison Beck, Kathy Stephens, Brooke Hartwell, Melinda Ogilvie, Nayoka Rimann, Eileen Osinski, Ellen Destefano, Theda Gajadhar, Amanda Strudwick, Karen Pierce, Lilin Lai, Ling Yue, Dongli Wang, and Carl Ying (Emory University); Amy Cline, Tara Foltz (Cincinnati Children's Hospital and Medical Center); Nancy Wagner, Geraldine Dull, and the University of Iowa VTEU team (University of Iowa); Thomas Pacatte and the staff of the Saint Louis University VTEU (St. Louis University); Barbara Taggart, Valerie Johnson, Logan Haller, Candi Looney, Shixiong Li, Megan May, Bridgette Myers, Rachel May, Lawanda Parker, Nertaissa Cochran, Donna Bowen, Michelle Bell, Jeffery Scoggins, and Angela Burns (Southern Research); Claire Stablein, Mark Wolff, Bernadette Jolles, and Brenda Leung (The EMMES Corporation); Linda Lambert, Shy Shorer, Wendy Buchanan, Suzanne Murray, Soju Chang, Richard Gorman (NIAID/DMID).

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.

Research Funding:

This project was supported by US Government funds from the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services, under the following Contract Numbers: HHSN272200800005C (Emory University); HHSN272200800006C (Cincinnati Children′s Hospital Medical Center); HHSN272200800008C (University of Iowa in Iowa City); HHSN272200800003C (Saint Louis University); HHSN272201200003I/HHSN27200003 (Battelle, and subcontractor Southern Research, Inc.); and HHSN272200800013C (The EMMES Corporation).

Additional support was provided by the following: the Georgia Research Alliance and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the NIH under Award Number UL1TR000454.


  • H5N1
  • MF59
  • adjuvant
  • antibody
  • avian influenza
  • pandemic preparedness
  • point-of-use mixing
  • vaccine

Point-of-Use Mixing of Influenza H5N1 Vaccine and MF59 Adjuvant for Pandemic Vaccination Preparedness: Antibody Responses and Safety. A Phase 1 Clinical Trial.

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Journal Title:

Open Forum Infectious Diseases


Volume 1, Number 3


, Pages ofu102-ofu102

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Avian influenza A/H5N1 has threatened human health for nearly 2 decades. Avian influenza A vaccine without adjuvant is poorly immunogenic. A flexible rapid tactic for mass vaccination will be needed if a pandemic occurs.

Copyright information:

© The Author 2014.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/), which permits distribution, public display, and publicly performance, making multiple copies, provided the original work is properly cited. This license requires copyright and license notices be kept intact, credit be given to copyright holder and/or author.

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