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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Leonard L. Howell, PhD, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329, P: 404-727-7786, F: 404-727-1266, lhowell@emory.edu

Acknowledgments: The authors express their gratitude to Lisa Neidert, Juliet Brown, and Mi Zhou for their excellent assistance with the experiments; and Eileen Kessler Sawyer who gave helpful comments on the manuscript.

Disclosures: The authors declared no conflict of interest.


Research Funding:

This research was supported by USPHS Grants DA10344 (LLH), DA31246 (LLH), P51OD11132 (Yerkes National Primate Research Center), and by AFIP and CNPq (MLA).


  • Methamphetamine
  • sleep
  • self-administration
  • drug abuse
  • Actiwatch

Effects of methamphetamine self-administration on actigraphy-based sleep parameters in monkeys


Journal Title:



Volume 227, Number 1


, Pages 101-107

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Rationale Sleep disorders and substance abuse are highly comorbid. Although methamphetamine is a very commonly abused drug, to the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated its effects on sleep during drug use and abstinence under well-controlled conditions in laboratory animals. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methamphetamine self-administration on sleep-like measures in nonhuman primates. Methods Adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=4) self-administered methamphetamine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement (60-min sessions once a day, 5 days per week) for 5 weeks. Sleep-like measures were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors before, during, and after each period of drug self-administration. Results Both doses of methamphetamine reliably maintained self-administration. Methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg) increased derived measures of latency to sleep onset and sleep fragmentation, and decreased sleep efficiency compared to abstinence, and higher methamphetamine intake predicted worse sleep quality. However, sleep normalized immediately after the discontinuation of methamphetamine self-administration. Conclusions Methamphetamine markedly disrupted sleep-like measures; however, methamphetamine self-administration did not disrupt sleep quality during subsequent periods of drug abstinence.

Copyright information:

© 2012, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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