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Author Notes:

Correspondence to: W. M. McClellan wmcclel@sph.emory.edu

Author contributions: R. E. Patzer and W. M. McClellan contributed equally to discussion of content for the article, researching data to include in the manuscript, writing, reviewing and editing of the manuscript before submission.

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.


Influence of race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on kidney disease


Journal Title:

Nature Reviews Nephrology


Volume 8, Number 9


, Pages 533-541

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


Low socioeconomic status (SES) influences disease incidence and contributes to poor health outcomes throughout an individual's life course across a wide range of populations. Low SES is associated with increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease, inadequate dialysis treatment, reduced access to kidney transplantation, and poor health outcomes. Similarly, racial and ethnic disparities, which in the USA are strongly associated with lower SES, are independently associated with poor health outcomes. In this Review, we discuss individual-level and group-level SES factors, and the concomitant role of race and ethnicity that are associated with and mediate the development of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease and access to treatment.

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© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

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