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Author Notes:

Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954, Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Tel: +1 40 4727 7519; Fax: +1 40 4727 3278; E-mail: ysmit01@emory.edu



  • dopamine
  • nonmotor symptoms
  • striatum
  • substantia nigra
  • deep brain stimulation
  • transplantation
  • dopamine
  • movement disorders
  • neurodegeneration/neuroprotection
  • neurology
  • basal ganglia
  • substantia nigra
  • deep brain stimulation
  • nigrostriatal
  • adenosine

Parkinson's Disease Therapeutics: New Developments and Challenges Since the Introduction of Levodopa


Journal Title:



Volume 37, Number 1


, Pages 213-246

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


The demonstration that dopamine loss is the key pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the subsequent introduction of levodopa have revolutionalized the field of PD therapeutics. This review will discuss the significant progress that has been made in the development of new pharmacological and surgical tools to treat PD motor symptoms since this major breakthrough in the 1960s. However, we will also highlight some of the challenges the field of PD therapeutics has been struggling with during the past decades. The lack of neuroprotective therapies and the limited treatment strategies for the nonmotor symptoms of the disease (ie, cognitive impairments, autonomic dysfunctions, psychiatric disorders, etc.) are among the most pressing issues to be addressed in the years to come. It appears that the combination of early PD nonmotor symptoms with imaging of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system offers a promising path toward the identification of PD biomarkers, which, once characterized, will set the stage for efficient use of neuroprotective agents that could slow down and alter the course of the disease.

Copyright information:

Copyright © 2011 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

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