About this item:

525 Views | 0 Downloads

Author Notes:

Correspondence: Lisa A. Parr, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329; Email: lparr@emory.edu; Tel: (404) 727-3653; Fax: (404) 727-8088

Acknowledgments: Thanks to Marisa Hall, Kathryn Knowlson, Donna Griffin, Jodi Godfrey and Kevin Watkins for assistance with data collection and coding, the veterinarians in the Division of Veterinary Medicine for performing the telemetry implant surgeries, and the animal care staff at the YNPRC.

Paul Chang and John Votaw of the YNPRC Imaging Core assisted with scan acquisitions.

Thanks to James Richie for performing the cortisol and ACTH assays. Special thanks to Todd Preuss for assistance interpreting brain regions.

Disclosures: Charles B. Nemeroff is a consultant to Takeda, SK Pharma and Pharmaneuroboost. He serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Cenerx, Pharmaneuroboost and Xhale. He serves on the Board of Directors of Novadel Pharma and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. He owns equity or stock options in Xhale, Cenerx, Pharmaneuroboost, Reevax and Novadel Pharma. He serves on the Scientific Council of the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, NARSAD, Skyland Trail and the Anxiety Disorders Association of America. He owns two patents, US 6,375,990B1 and US 7,148,027B2)

The Yerkes National Primate Research Center is fully accredited by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care.

All procedures described here were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) for Emory University and were performed in accordance with the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.


Research Funding:

This investigation was supported by grants P50MH058922 (NIMH Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Mental Disorders), RR-00165 from the NIH/NCRR to the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and R01MH-068791 to L.A. Parr.

Charles B. Nemeroff is supported by grants from NIH and AHRQ.


  • Early life stress
  • rearing
  • HPA axis
  • monkey
  • PET
  • social brain

Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)


Journal Title:

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience


Volume 2, Number 1


, Pages 181-193

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger.

Copyright information:

© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Creative Commons License

Export to EndNote