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Author Notes:

E-mail: tpreuss@emory.edu.

Edited by Francisco J. Ayala, University of California, Irvine, CA, and approved April 25, 2012 (received for review February 27, 2012)

Author contributions: T.M.P. wrote the paper.



  • primate
  • hominid
  • phylogeny

Human brain evolution: From gene discovery to phenotype discovery


Journal Title:

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Volume 109, Number Supplement_1


, Pages 10709-10716

Type of Work:

Article | Post-print: After Peer Review


The rise of comparative genomics and related technologies has added important new dimensions to the study of human evolution. Our knowledge of the genes that underwent expression changes or were targets of positive selection in human evolution is rapidly increasing, as is our knowledge of gene duplications, translocations, and deletions. It is now clear that the genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees are far more extensive than previously thought; their genomes are not 98% or 99% identical. Despite the rapid growth in our understanding of the evolution of the human genome, our understanding of the relationship between genetic changes and phenotypic changes is tenuous. This is true even for the most intensively studied gene, FOXP2, which underwent positive selection in the human terminal lineage and is thought to have played an important role in the evolution of human speech and language. In part, the difficulty of connecting genes to phenotypes reflects our generally poor knowledge of human phenotypic specializations, as well as the difficulty of interpreting the consequences of genetic changes in species that are not amenable to invasive research. On the positive side, investigations of FOXP2, along with genomewide surveys of gene-expression changes and selection-driven sequence changes, offer the opportunity for “phenotype discovery,” providing clues to human phenotypic specializations that were previously unsuspected. What is more, at least some of the specializations that have been proposed are amenable to testing with noninvasive experimental techniques appropriate for the study of humans and apes.
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