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Author Notes:

Corresponding author. E-mail address: dcloud@emory.edu (D.H. Cloud).

David H. Cloud led the conceptualization and writing of the paper, and Dr. Stephanie Beane led statistical analysis, all under the mentorship of Dr. Hannah LF Cooper and Kelli Komro.

All other co-authors provided invaluable assistance and feedback with study methodology, analysis, and editing.

We express our gratitude to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for sharing the following databases: the HIV Counseling and Testing System database and the National HIV Surveillance System database.


Research Funding:

The following grants supported this project: Metropolitan Trajectories of HIV Epidemics, Drug Use, and Responses in US Key Populations (DA037568; PIs: Cooper, Friedman, and Stall); Center for AIDS Research at Emory University (P30AI050409; PI: Del Rio); R01 MD010241 from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health (PIs Komro, Wagenaar); and Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (P30 DA11041; PI Sherry Deren).


  • hierarchical linear modeling
  • state minimum wage
  • rates of newly diagnosed HIV
  • HIV
  • black heterosexuals
  • cost-of-living
  • men
  • women
  • public health
  • exploratory analysis
  • income inequality

State minimum wage laws and newly diagnosed cases of HIV among heterosexual black residents of US metropolitan areas

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Journal Title:

SSM - Population Health


Volume 7


, Pages 100327-100327

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


This ecologic cohort study explores the relationship between state minimum wage laws and rates of HIV diagnoses among heterosexual black residents of U.S metropolitan areas over an 8-year span. Specifically, we applied hierarchical linear modeling to investigate whether state-level variations in minimum wage laws, adjusted for cost-of-living and inflation, were associated with rates of new HIV diagnoses among heterosexual black residents of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs; n=73), between 2008 and 2015. Findings suggest that an inverse relationship exists between baseline state minimum wages and initial rates of newly diagnosed HIV cases among heterosexual black individuals, after adjusting for potential confounders. MSAs with a minimum wage that was $1 higher at baseline had a 27.12% lower rate of newly diagnosed HIV cases. Exploratory analyses suggest that income inequality may mediate this relationship. If subsequent research establishes a causal relationship between minimum wage and this outcome, efforts to increase minimum wages should be incorporated into HIV prevention strategies for this vulnerable population.

Copyright information:

© 2018 The Authors

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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