About this item:

196 Views | 168 Downloads

Author Notes:

Correspondence: aklaar@yahoo.com

AKL, WKA, IAQ, JT conceived, designed, implemented the research.

AKL, FG, YA, IS, BN, JA, ASL contributed to the data analysis, and drafted different components of the manuscript.

All the other authors contributed equally in manuscript proofreading and finalization.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

We thankfully acknowledge all the women who consented and enrolled into the study, the dedication of our research nurses, research assistants and the laboratory technicians at the three study sites (Tema General Hospital, Atua Government Hospital and St Martins de Porres Hospital).

The authors also thank the Manya Krobo Queen Mothers Association, the Family Health International and the Manya Krobo District Health Directorate for their guidance during the community entry stages of the research.

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.


Research Funding:

The entire cost of the field work was catered for by the TALIF Project # CHSR/001/2005 of the School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon.


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anemia
  • Coinfection
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood
  • Fetal Hemoglobin
  • Ghana
  • HIV Infections
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • Malaria, Falciparum
  • Male
  • Parasitemia
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Prevalence
  • Sex Factors

Predictors of fetal anemia and cord blood malaria parasitemia among newborns of HIV-positive mothers


Journal Title:

BMC Research Notes


Volume 6, Number 1


, Pages 350-350

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


Background: Malaria and HIV infections during pregnancy can individually or jointly unleash or confound pregnancy outcomes. Two of the probable outcomes are fetal anemia and cord blood malaria parasitemia. We determined clinical and demographic factors associated with fetal anemia and cord blood malaria parasitemia in newborns of HIV-positive women from two districts in Ghana. Results: We enrolled 1,154 antenatal attendees (443 HIV-positive and 711 HIV-negative) of which 66% were prospectively followed up at delivery. Maternal malaria parasitemia, and anemia rates among HIV+ participants at enrolment were 20.3% and 78.7% respectively, and 12.8% and 51.6% among HIV- participants. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to study associations. Prevalence of fetal anemia (cord hemoglobin level < 12.5 g/dL) and cord parasitemia (presence of P. falciparum in cord blood at delivery) were 57.3% and 24.4% respectively. Factors found to be associated with fetal anemia were maternal malaria parasitemia and maternal anemia. Infant cord hemoglobin status at delivery was positively and significantly associated with maternal hemoglobin and gestational age whilst female gender of infant was negatively associated with cord hemoglobin status. Maternal malaria parasitemia status at recruitment and female gender of infant were positively associated with infant cord malaria parasitemia status. Conclusions: Our data show that newborns of women infected with HIV and/or malaria are at increased risk of anemia and also cord blood malaria parasitemia. Prevention of malaria infection during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of both adverse perinatal outcomes.

Copyright information:

© 2013 Laar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/).

Creative Commons License

Export to EndNote