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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Timothy W. Olsen, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; olsen.timothy@mayo.edu

Disclosure: J. Tran, None; C. Craven, None; K. Wabner, None; J. Schmit, None; B. Matter, None; U. Kompella, None; H.E. Grossniklaus, None; T.W. Olsen, iMacular Regeneration LLC (S)


Research Funding:

Supported in part by National Institutes of Health/National Eye Institute RO1 EY022097, P30 EY006360 (Department Core Grant), the Georgia Research Alliance, and an unrestricted grant from Research to Prevent Blindness to the Department of Ophthalmology at Emory University.


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Animals
  • Bevacizumab
  • Choroidal Neovascularization
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Immunoconjugates
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Pyrimidines
  • Sulfonamides
  • Swine
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Intravitreal drug delivery
  • Porcine

A pharmacodynamic analysis of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model using three targeted drugs


Journal Title:

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science


Volume 58, Number 9


, Pages 3732-3740

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF


PURPOSE. To compare the efficacy of microneedle-delivered suprachoroidal (SC) pazopanib to intravitreal (Ivit) delivery of pazopanib, bevacizumab, or a fusion protein hI-con1 versus vehicle controls on choroidal neovascularization (CNV) growth in a pig model. METHODS. Forty-one pigs were injected on the day of CNV induction (hI-con1 on postinduction day 14) with either 2.5 mg Ivit bevacizumab (n = 9), 1 mg Ivit pazopanib (n = 9), 300 Ivit μg hI-con1 (n = 4), or 1 mg SC pazopanib (n = 9), vs. 10 vehicle controls (3 SC + 7 Ivit = 10). Pigs were euthanized at week 2 (11), 3 (8), 4 (11), and 8 (11), and eyes were fixed for histology. The size of the CNV was determined from histology, and CNV height was the primary outcome measure. Immunostaining for cytotoxic T-cells was performed in the hI-con1 study. RESULTS. In 39 of 41 (95%) eyes, type 2 CNV lesions were identified. One CNV lesion was lost during dissection. One animal was euthanized due to surgical complications. For mean CNV size comparisons, Ivit pazopanib had smaller mean height measurements (90 ± 20 μm) versus controls (180 ± 20 μm; P = 0.009), and Ivit pazopanib had smaller maximum CNV height (173 ± 43 μm) compared to SC pazopanib (478 ± 105 μm; P = 0.018). The mean lesion size in hI-con1–treated animals trended smaller than in controls (P = 0.11). Immunostaining did not detect cytotoxic T-cells. CONCLUSIONS. Intravitreal pazopanib and to a lesser extent hI-con1 reduced the size of CNV lesions. The pig model has nearly a 100% rate of type 2 CNV induction and is a reliable preclinical model with pharmacodynamics similar to humans.

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© 2017 The Authors.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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