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Author Notes:

Correspondence: Email: psuchde@emory.edu; Tel.: +1-404-712-5945

O.Y.A., O.L.S., V.D.G., F.A.S.A., T.R.Z., and P.S.S. designed research; S.S., O.Y.A., and P.S.S. conducted research; S.S., O.Y.A., and P.S.S. analyzed data; and S.S., O.Y.A., O.L.S., V.D.G., F.A.S.A., T.R.Z., and P.S.S. wrote the paper; and S.S. had primary responsibility for final content.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

The funding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

Subjects:

Research Funding:

S.S.: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number UL1TR000454—the content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

O.Y.A.: None; O.L.S.: None; V.D.G.: None; F.A.S.A.: None; T.R.Z.: National Institutes of Health: Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute UL1 TR000454 and K24 DK096574—the content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health; P.S.S.: None; The BRINDA project is supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NICHD, CDC and GAIN.

Keywords:

  • Science & Technology
  • Life Sciences & Biomedicine
  • Nutrition & Dietetics
  • anemia
  • iron deficiency
  • school aged children
  • Mexico
  • United States
  • Colombia
  • MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES
  • ACUTE-PHASE RESPONSE
  • IRON-DEFICIENCY
  • PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN
  • DOUBLE BURDEN
  • NUTRITIONAL-STATUS
  • WESTERN KENYA
  • DUAL BURDEN
  • PREVALENCE
  • INFLAMMATION

Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

Tools:

Journal Title:

Nutrients

Volume:

Volume 8, Number 7

Publisher:

, Pages 387-387

Type of Work:

Article | Final Publisher PDF

Abstract:

Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

Copyright information:

© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This is an Open Access work distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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